Saturday, October 10, 2015


Anemia is a general term for a large number of conditions marked by a reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood. Red blood cells carry oxygen in hemoglobin, so that anemia may be caused by a deficiency of blood or red blood cells or of hemoglobin. These conditions may be caused by a variety of other conditions. Injury can cause blood loss, which in turn can cause anemia.
Nutritional deficiency, inadequate amounts of some of the vitamins and minerals that are needed for hemoglobin production, may also cause anemia. Because hemoglobin is the pigment that makes blood cells red, a lack of hemoglobin will cause the cells to be a paler color, leading to the term hypochromic, lacking in color.

Anemia caused by blood loss is normally treated with either blood volume expanders such as plasma or with related blood products. More severe blood loss may require transfusions of red blood cells.
In some cases, blood loss may be due to ulcers of the stomach or intestines. In these cases, treatment of the underlying cause will normally correct the anemia.

The most common cause of anemia in adults is iron deficiency. Although the typical American diet contains enough iron to meet normal needs, individuals who are less able to absorb and store iron may experience inadequate hemoglobin production. Although the best way to meet daily iron requirements is through improved diet, iron supplements are widely used.

Antianemic drug, any drug that increases the number of red blood cells or the amount of hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying protein) in the blood, deficiencies of which characterize the disorder known as anemia. The red cell and hemoglobin reductions associated with anemia result in tissue oxygen deficiencies that can lead to symptoms such as fainting, dizziness, and shortness of breath.

There are different types of anemia, and thus there exists a variety of antianemic agents. Iron salts, such as ferrous sulfate, are used to treat iron-deficiency anemia, which occurs when the body is deficient in iron, an essential component of hemoglobin. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are used to treat folic acid deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia, which occur because of a lack of these vitamins. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are necessary for red blood cell formation.

An agent used to treat or to prevent anemia. Whole blood is transfused in the treatment of anemia resulting from acute blood loss, and packed cells are usually administered when the deficiency is caused by chronic blood loss. Transfusions of blood components are used in the treatment of aplastic anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is usually treated with oral preparations of ferrous sulfate, fumarate, or gluconate, but a parenteral preparation is indicated for people who are unable to absorb iron from the GI tract or for those who respond with nausea and diarrhea to the oral administration of iron.

Cyanocobalamin is administered parenterally in the treatment of pernicious anemia. Folic acid is prescribed to correct a deficiency of that vitamin in the anemias accompanying general malnutrition or Laƫnnec's cirrhosis and to treat the anemia of infants on an exclusive milk diet. A combination of folic acid and vitamin B12 is prescribed for people who are anemic as result of an inadequate dietary intake of both vitamins.


Iron bivalent, oral preparations
Ferrous glycine sulfate, Ferrous fumarate, Ferrous gluconate, Ferrous carbonate, Ferrous chloride, Ferrous succinate, Ferrous sulfate, Ferrous tartrate, Ferrous aspartate, Ferrous ascorbate, Ferrous iodine,

Iron trivalent oral preparations
Ferric sodium citrate, Saccharated iron oxide, Sodium feredetate, Ferric hydroxide, Ferric oxide polymaltose complexes, Ferric citrate, Chondroitin sulfate-iron complex, Ferric acetyl transferring, Ferric proteinsuccinylate, Iron dextran complexes

Iron parenteral preparations, Iron in combination with folic acid
Ferrous amino acid complex, Ferrous fumarate, Ferrous sulfate, Ferric oxide polymaltose complexes

Iron in other combinations
Iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid, Iron, multivitamins and folic acid, Iron and multivitamins, Iron, multivitamins and minerals, Various combinations

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin and analogues) and folic acid
Cyanocobalamin, Cyanocobalamin tannin complex, Hydroxocobalamin, Cobamamide, Mecobalamin, Cyanocobalamin, combinations, Hydroxocobalamin, combinations

Folic acid and derivatives
Folic acid, Folic acid, combinations

Other antianemic preparations
Erythropoietin, Darbepoetin alfa, Methoxy polyethylene glycol-epoetin beta, Peginesatide


DIURETICS an overview

The amount of fluid (water) retained by the body is controlled primarily by the kidneys. This occurs due to the kidney's ability to control the retention and elimination of sodium and chloride, because the amounts of sodium, chloride, and water in the body are carefully balanced. Thus, if sodium and chloride are eliminated from the body, water also is eliminated. Conversely, if sodium and chloride are retained by the body, so is water.

The elimination of sodium, chloride, and water from the body is somewhat complex. In the kidneys, sodium, chloride, and other small molecules are filtered out of the blood and into the tubules of the kidney where urine is formed. Most of the sodium, chloride, and water are reabsorbed into the blood before the filtered fluid leaves the kidney in the form of urine. To make matters even more complex, there are different mechanisms that are active in different parts of the tubules that affect the reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way. Alternatively, an antidiuretic such as vasopressin, or antidiuretic hormone, is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of water in urine.

Uses of Diuretics

Diuretics are used with other types of medications (adjunctive therapy) in edema associated with congestive heart failure (CHF), cirrhosis of the liver, and corticosteroid and estrogen therapy. Also are useful in edema caused by renal dysfunction (for example, nephrotic syndrome, acute glomerulo nephritis, and chronic renal failure).

Diuretics are used to lower urinary calcium excretion, making them useful in preventing calcium-containing kidney stones and as the sole therapeutic agents to treat hypertension. Diuretics can also be used in combination with other antihypertensive drugs to treat more severe forms of hypertension. Diuretics (specifically the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) are used as adjunctive treatment of chronic simple (open-angle) glaucoma and secondary glaucoma

1.      Acting at proximal convoluted tubules
i. Osmotic diuretics - Osmotic diuretics are substances that increase osmolality but have limited tubular epithelial cell permeability. They work primarily by expanding extracellular fluid and plasma volume, therefore increasing blood flow to the kidney,particularly the peritubular capillaries.
·       Glycerin, Mannitole, Isosorbide and Urea
             ii. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors - Carbonic anhydrase                                     inhibitors inhibit the enzyme carbonic anhydrase which is                        found in the proximal convoluted tubule. This results in                              several effects including bicarbonate accumulation in the                            urine and decreased sodium absorption.
·       Acetazolamide, Methazolamide
iii.    Acidifying drugs
·       Ammonium chloride
iv.  Others
like tea, coffee, Theophylline, etc.

       2.Acting at loop of Henle
i.    Loop diuretics - Loop diuretics, such as furosemide, inhibit the body's ability to reabsorb sodium at the ascending loop in the nephron, which leads to an excretion of water in the urine, whereas water normally follows sodium back into the extracellular fluid.
·       Furosemide, Torsemide, Ethacrynic acid and Bumetanide
ii.   Mercurial agents
·       Mercaptomerin

          3.Acting at distal convoluted tubule
i. Thiazides diuretics - Thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide act on the distal convoluted tubule and inhibit the sodium-chloride symporter leading to a retention of water in the urine, as water normally follows penetrating solutes.
· Chlorothiazide, Chlorothalidone, Hydrochlorothiazide, Methyclothiazide, Metolazone
ii.  Sulfonamides
·       Indapemide, Xipemide

           4. Acting at collecting duct system
i.    K- sparing diuretics - These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, potassium is retained and not lost as much as with other diuretics. The term "potassium-sparing" refers to an effect rather than a mechanism or location
      . Aldosterone antagonist - Spironolactone
      . Direct acting - Triamterene, Amiloride
ii.    ADH antagonists
·       Lithium salts, Demeclocycline
·    Na/K acetate
·    Na/K bicarbonate
·    Na/K Acetate
·    Albumin
·    Dextrose


An antidiuretic is an agent or drug that, when administered to an organism, helps control body water balance by reducing urination opposing diuresis.Antidiuretics are the drugs that reduce urine volume, particularly in diabetes insipidus (DI) which is their primary indication. 


1. Antidiuretic hormones - Vasopressin, also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or argipressin, is aneurohypophysial hormone found in most mammals. Its two primary functions are to retain water in the body and to constrict blood vessels. Vasopressin regulates the body's retention of water by acting to increase water reabsorption in the kidney's collecting ducts, the tubules which receive the very dilute urine produced by the functional unit of the kidney, the nephrons.
  --ADH/Vasopressin, Desmopressin, Lypressin, Terlipressin

2. Miscellaneous
  --Chlorpropamide, Carbamazepine

Dale, M. M., H. P. Rang, and Maureen M. Dale. 2007. Rang & Dale's pharmacology. [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone.
Laurence L. Brunton (2011). Goodman & Gilman's pharmacological basis of therapeutics. (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Thursday, October 8, 2015

How to Make Career as Pharmacist Abroad

The pharmacy profession is highly demanding and rewarding profession for many years in  USA, Canada, Australia, NZ, UK and all other first world countries. Pharmacist is the most important and positive contributing member of the health care system of any particular country. Health care sector is very important part of any particular country, in addition, developed countries give extra important to Health care sector and health care professionals. Thus, Pharmacist is an important and valuable member of health care system in Canada, USA, Aus, NZ, and UK etc.

The demand is continuously growing because of following reasons

·         More than 47% of currently working Pharmacist are above age of 45 years
·         Old age population is dramatically increase in developed countries due to long life expectance
·         Increasing the rate and onset of chronic disease at early age
·         Continually, increasing the responsibilities of pharmacist thus new era of pharmacy profession has evolved

o    Registered Pharmacist
o    Clinical Pharmacist
o    Hospital Pharmacist
o    Consultant Pharmacist
o    Disease management Pharmacist

o    MMR Pharmacist
o    Nuclear Pharmacist
o    Geriatric Pharmacist
o    Industrial Pharmacist
o    Prescribing Pharmacist
·         Local students are not preferring to study Pharmacy courses
Pharmacist shortages are projected to increase over the next 20 years. Only strategic option to meet this shortage of Pharmacist can be achieved by offering Immigration to International pharmacist.
Pharmacists with specialized education and training become more versatile within the health care system to attain optimal health outcomes for patients through proper medication use.
These kind of intervention evolved new avenues of opportunities for pharmacist in developed countries. For Example
In Australia, Pharmacist receives wage from the Australian Government for conducting comprehensive Home Medicines Reviews.
In Canada, Pharmacists in certain provinces have prescribing rights (as in Alberta and British Columbia) or are salaried by their provincial
government for expanded services such as medications reviews (Meds checks in Ontario).
In United Kingdom , Pharmacists who undertake additional training are obtaining prescribing rights. They are also being paid by the government for
medicine use reviews.
In United States, Pharmaceutical care or clinical pharmacy has had an evolving influence on the practice of pharmacy.
In Scotland, Pharmacist can write prescriptions for Scottish registered patients of their regular medications, for the majority of drugs, except for Controlled drugs.
Thus, employment potential as a Pharmacist is very high in Canada, USA, AUS, NZ, and UK
To grab all this opportunities International Students must have to get “licence to practise as a pharmacist” In any particular country. In order to get Pharmacist licence, candidate must have to pass few steps.
Pharmacy Profession is regulated in all developed countries like USA, Canada, AUS, NZ and UK to practice as a Pharmacist.
Most important point, if any one wants to work as a Pharmacist they must have to get Pharmacist license from Pharmacy board of the respective country.
Eligibility to get License in all developed countries is 4 years Bachelor of Pharmacy (Note: Our 4 years Pharmacy Course is valid in all developed countries like Canada, Aus, NZ, UK and all gulf countries except for USA. USA is only accepting 5 years Bachelor ofPharmacy or PharmD Degree)
All developed countries have almost same licensing process to regulate Pharmacy profession by Conducting Examination as below.
Step - 1 : Pharmacist Evaluation Examination (Stage 1)
Step - 2 : Training as a Pharmacist
Step - 3 : Qualifying Examination (Stage 2)



List of CROs in INDIA

List of CRO (Clinical Research Organisations) in INDIA


Wednesday, October 7, 2015

Pharmacy : Career Options

After studying so much the main questions in the mind of everyone is what now what after I have completed my desired course of study. Same is the case with us who are in the pharmaceutical field, after completion of our degree or diploma we just keep on thinking which would be a better or great career to choose and start to have a bright future ahead.
So in this post I will try to summarize the relevant career paths available after degree/diploma/higher degree and hope it will be enough to guide you through to achieve what you aim for in future. I will be listing the careers whatever is relevant after degree or diploma in the options mentioned in the lower courses can also be taken by the higher degree professionals.
After D.Pharma
·      Business development executive - marketing representative, MR, executive, sales personnel and many more names are available all are same and comprise of making sales and increasing the market share of the pharmaceutical company. The job comprises sales through one on one channels, direct or indirect sales, etc.
·     Pharmacist – also known as chemists (Commonwealth English) or druggists (North American and, archaically, Commonwealth English), are healthcare professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use. Retail pharmacists might work in small, independent pharmacies or in the pharmacy departments within grocery stores or larger retail establishments, filling and dispensing patients' medicines as prescribed by their doctors.
·  Pharmacy assistant - Assistant pharmacists work alongside licensed and pharmacist technicians to help process prescriptions.Assistants' duties are typically clerical and organizational in nature and might include answering phones, filling out and filing paperwork, running cash registers and stocking shelves.
·  Pharmacy aide - Pharmacy Aides are responsible for storing merchandise, maintaining inventory, and recording drugs delivered to the pharmacy. The key difference between pharmacy aides and pharmacy technicians is that aides are not allowed to dispense prescriptions. Instead, they spend most of their time operating cash registers and accepting prescription orders from customers.
·     In manufacturing - In a manufacturing environment a pharmacist would initially supervise one or more units (such as packaging or tablet manufacturing). The production pharmacist will also be responsible for the safety and health at work of their staff. He or she is expected to bring leadership to a group or department; this would include those individuals reporting directly to them as well as other groups.
·       Lab technician – many academic institutes require lab assistants or technicians to get help in the research or lab work so it is also a bright option.
So these are a few career options after diploma in pharmacy (D.Pharma) or you can study further and take a bachelors degree (B.Pharma) and explore more options.
AFTER B.Pharma
·      In QA department - QA department is to maintain an oversight function over Production, Analytical laboratory, Warehouse, Utilities/Water supply and the environment (hygiene)to assure that good manufacturing practices, good laboratory practices and good storage practices are in place.

·      In QC department - Quality control is an essential operation of the pharmaceutical industry. Drugs must be marketed as safe and therapeutically active formulations whose performance is consistent and predictable. New and better medicinal agents are being produced at an accelerated rate. At the same time more exacting and sophisticated analytical methods are being developed for their evaluation.
·    Academics – or you can also start as a lecturer in any diploma institute of pharmacy and help build the career of coming students.
·       In FDA - Pharmacists at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) work in a variety of jobs at the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, including positions in the Office of Drug Safety, the Office of Generic and Orphan Drug Products, the Division of Drug Information, and the Division of Metabolic and Endocrine Drug Products.
·       In testing laboratory – also there is a bright scope of pharmacist in testing laboratories as trainees.
·       IPR - Intellectual property rights (IPR) is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. 
·       Clinical pharmacist - As a clinical pharmacist, your opportunities to be a leader are greatly expanding. All pharmacists are leaders in their everyday practices by successfully influencing the behavior of physicians, nurses, pharmacy technicians, interns, support staff, and others to enhance medication safety and optimize patient outcomes.
·       Bulk drug manufacturing and distribution - "Manufacturing" means the production, preparation, propagation, conversion or processing of a drug or device, either directly or indirectly, by large volume extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical or biological synthesis, and includes any packaging or repackaging of a substance or labeling or relabeling of its container, and the promotion and marketing of such drugs and devices. "Manufacturing" also includes the preparation and promotion of commercially available products from bulk compounds for resale by pharmacists to anyone other than a patient via a prescription, practitioners, or other persons. "Wholesaler" means a person with facilities in or outside this state who obtains drugs for distribution or delivery to persons other than consumers.
·       Pharmaceutical consultancy - A consultant pharmacist is a who works as a consultant providing expert advice on the use of medications or on the provision of pharmacy services to medical institutions, medical practices and individual patients.
After bachelors degree you have two options either to take a master degree or opt for management studies.
After B.Pharma + MBA/MMS
·       Management trainee in various departments of pharma industry.
·       Product executive -  same job role as a MR (discussed above under D.Pharma)
·       Product manager - sales job with a higher managerial post like – area sales manager, district sales manager, regional sales manager, etc.
·       Administrative manager – under this category you can make a career in hospital management or management of other administrative positions in pharmaceutical industries and institutions.
After M.Pharma
·       Academics – work as lecturer in degree pharmacy institutes and with experience or PhD can be promoted to assistant professor/associate professor/ professor.
·       In R&D – can work as JRF (junior research fellow) and then can be promoted to SRF (senior research fellow) within 2-3years of experience and then as scientist after completion of PhD.
·   \In formulation and manufacturing – senior positions of supervisors or head of the department can be achieved with prior experience.
·        In QA/QC – same as discussed in B.Pharm but getting a good position and good salary can be expected if you have some relevant experience.
·     In marketing/sales – yes after masters you can go into sales and with relevant experience you can also go into product management (PMT).
·  In regulatory affairs - Regulatory Affairs is involved in the development of new medicinal products from early on, by integrating regulatory principles and by preparing and submitting the relevant regulatory dossiers to health authorities. Regulatory Affairs is actively involved in every stage of development of a new medicine and in the post-marketing activities with authorised medicinal products.
Or after your masters you can move forward to PhD/doctoral/post doctoral studies and research work. And opt for careers such as scientist, senior positions in R&D and pharma industries.
So option are many and future is bright all you do is to choose the right career and make a start.

Reference › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)